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發表於 2010-9-11 16:44:24 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
Landslide (山崩、土石流)
Landslide and Debris Flow(Mudslide) (山崩、土石流)
●Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories. In a landslide, masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope. Landslides may be small or large, slow or rapid. They are activated by:(山崩會發生在美國各州及領土內。山崩會從坡面帶來大量的石塊、泥土或破瓦殘礫。山崩規模可能很小、也可能很大,可能進行很慢、也可能進行得很快。山崩常因下列的事件所引發:)
--storms.(暴風雨)
--earthquakes.(地震)
--volcanic eruptions.(火山爆發)
--fires.(火災)
--alternate freezing or thawing(交替的結冰與融冰)
--and steepening of slopes by erosion or human modification.(因侵蝕或人們整建所加深變陡峭的坡面。)

●Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground, during heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud or “slurry.” They can flow rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanche speeds. They also can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, boulders, cars, and other materials.(土石流即是石塊、泥土、殘骸混合著水的河流。當大量的降雨或快速的融雪造成積水快速地在地面累積,土石流開始發展並轉變泥土成為流動的泥河或泥漿。它們可以快速的流動,並以山崩般的速度幾乎無預警的發生。它們也可以自源頭行進數英哩,帶走樹木、石礫、車輛及其他物體,使規模並隨距離而增長。)

●Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particularly in mountain, canyon, and coastal regions. In areas burned by forest and brush fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides. Land-use zoning, professional inspections, and proper design can minimize many landslide, mudflow, and debris flow problems.(山崩的問題可能因為土地的管理不善所引起,特別是在山區、峽谷及海岸地區。在因森林火災燒過的地區,較低的降雨量即可能引發山崩。土地使用規劃、專業的檢察及適當的設計,都可以減少許多山、土石流等問題。)

Before a Landslide or Debris Flow:(山崩或土石流來臨前之準備:)
Protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow:(保護自己免受山崩或土石流影響:)
●Do not build near steep slopes, close to mountain edges, near drainage ways, or natural erosion valleys.(請勿在陡峭山坡附近、山崖旁邊、接近排水溝渠或自然峽谷間等地建築房舍。)
●Get a geologic hazard assessment of your property.(評估自己所有財產可能的地理災害。)
●Contact local officials, state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and university departments of geology. Landslides occur where they have before, and in identifiable hazard locations. Ask for information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for an appropriate hazard assessment of your property, and corrective measures you can take, if necessary.(聯絡當地官方人員、國家地理探察或天然資源部門及大學地理學系。山崩會發生在以前發生過的地方及可證明為災害的地點。詢問當地區域山崩的資訊,當地區域容易發生山崩的特定資訊,並尋求專業人員適當評估自身財產安全受害的意見及所採取的正確措施。)
●If you are at risk from a landslide talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).(假如你正處於山崩的風險下,聯絡你的保險人員。由於國家淹水保險計畫的淹水保險政策,土石流可能可以理賠。)
●Minimize home hazards:(減少家庭災害)
--Have flexible pipe fittings installed to avoid gas or water leaks, as flexible fittings are more resistant to breakage (only the gas company or professionals should install gas fittings).(安裝一個有彈性的管線接頭以減少瓦斯或水源的外漏,這些有彈性的接頭更可以防止洩漏,只有瓦斯公司或專業人員可以安裝這些瓦斯接頭。)
--Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls.(在斜坡上上種植一些植被,並建造擋土牆。)
--In mudflow areas, build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings.(在土石流區域,建造渠道或轉折牆,以引道流向避開建築物。)
--Remember: If you build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's property, you may be liable for damages.(請記得:假如你建造了牆面來改變土石流,但卻流向鄰居的家產,你將會為其損失而追究責任。)

Recognize Landslide Warning Signs(認識山崩的警告徵兆)
●Changes occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes(especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement, small slides, flows, or progressively leaning trees.(你所在地區地貌的改變,像是暴風雨雨水在斜坡上排水的型態,特別是流出的水源所涵蓋 範圍、土地移動、小規模滑動、流動或持續傾倒的樹木。)
●Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time.(門口或窗戶第一次卡住或阻塞。)
●New cracks appear in plaster, tile, brick, or foundations.(灰泥、磁磚、磚頭或地基新出現的裂縫。)
●Outside walls, walks, or stairs begin pulling away from the building.(外牆、走道或階梯從建築物脫離。)
●Slowly developing, widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways.(緩慢發展、變寬的裂縫,出現在地面或舖設好的區域,像是街道或車道。)
●Underground utility lines break.(地下管線破裂。)
●Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope.(斜坡的下方出現膨脹的地面。)
●Water breaks through the ground surface in new locations.(水源自新位置的地面湧出。)
●Fences, retaining walls, utility poles, or trees tilt or move.(柵欄、擋水牆、維生管線或樹木傾斜或移動。)
●A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears.(微弱的隆隆聲逐漸變大引起注意,即是山崩接近的聲音。)
●Unusual sounds, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together, might indicate moving debris.(不尋常的聲音,像是樹木斷裂或石頭撞起在一起,這可能代表土石正在流動。)
●Collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides).(倒塌的人行道、泥土、掉落的石塊及其他可能代表土石流的情況,可能在開車時發現。道路旁的堤岸可能特別受土石流影響。)

During a Landslide or Debris Flow:(山崩或土石流來臨時,該如何處置)
●What you should do if a landslide or debris flow occurs:(如果山崩或土石流發生,你應該怎麼做:)
--Stay alert and awake. Many debris-flow fatalities occur when people are sleeping. Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio or portable, battery-powered radio or television for warnings of intense rainfall. Be aware that intense, short bursts of rain may be particularly dangerous, especially after longer periods of heavy rainfall and damp weather.(保持警戒及清醒。許多土石流造成的傷亡,都常是發生在人們睡覺的時候。收聽國家海洋大氣管理局天氣廣播、電池式的行動收音機或電視上密集降雨的警告。注意強烈短暫的暴雨可能特別危險,特別是經過長時間的降雨和潮濕的氣候。)
--If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider leaving if it is safe to do so. Remember that driving during an intense storm can be hazardous. If you remain at home, move to a second story if possible. Staying out of the path of a landslide or debris flow saves lives.(假如你在有潛在山崩或土石流危險的區域,在安全的前提下考慮撤離那裡。記得開車經過強烈降雨的區域是非常危險的。假如你留在家裡,可以的話移到二樓去。遠離山崩或土石流的路徑可以救你一命。)
--Listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together. A trickle of flowing or falling mud or debris may precede larger landslides. Moving debris can flow quickly and sometimes without warning.(注意聆聽任何不尋常的聲音,那可能代表移動中的土石,像是樹木爆裂或石頭敲擊的聲音。流動或掉落的少數泥土或殘骸,可能會發生在大規模的山崩之前。移動的殘骸可能流動非常快速,而且有時候沒有任何預警。)
--If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in water flow and for a change from clear to muddy water. Such changes may indicate landslide activity upstream, so be prepared to move quickly. Don't delay! Save yourself, not your belongings.(假如你接近溪流或河道,提高警覺小心任何突然增高或降低的水流,及清澈的溪水突然變濁。這些情況可能是上游有山崩的現象。不要延誤,救你自己,而不是你的財物。)
--Be especially alert when driving. Embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides. Watch the road for collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and other indications of possible debris flows. (開車時要特別提高警覺。河邊的堤防特別有可能發生崩塌。注意道路上有崩塌的人行道、泥漿、墜落的石頭及其他可能代表土石流的徵兆。)

●What to Do if You Suspect Imminent Landslide Danger:(假如你懷疑有立即的山崩危險時,該怎麼處置)
--Contact your local fire, police, or public works department. Local officials are the best persons able to assess potential danger.(聯絡當地消防、警察或公立機構。當地的官方人員評估潛在危險的最佳人選。)
--Inform affected neighbors. Your neighbors may not be aware of potential hazards. Advising them of a potential threat may help save lives. Help neighbors who may need assistance to evacuate.(通知受影響鄰居。你的鄰居可能還沒注意到潛在的危害。勸告他們潛在的威脅可能可以拯救人命。幫助這些需要協助的鄰居撤離。)
--Evacuate. Getting out of the path of a landslide or debris flow is your best protection.(撤離。遠離山崩或土石流的路徑是你最佳的保護。)
--Curl into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible.(假如不能撤離的話,捲曲你的身體並保護你的頭部。)

After a Landslide or Debris Flow:(在山崩或土石流之後)
Guidelines for the period following a landslide:(在山崩發生之後,如何處理)
●Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.(遠離坡面區域。可能會發生一些後續滑動的危險。)
●Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.(收聽當地收音機或收看電視以獲得最新的緊急資訊。)
●Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the same event.(注意洪水,通常可能發生在山崩或土石流之後。洪水有時候會隨著山崩或土石流,它們會因為相同的事件而引發。)
●Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide area. Direct rescuers to their locations.(在不進入直接滑動的區域前提下,留意受傷及受困的人們。引導搜救人員到這些人們的位置。)
●Help a neighbor who may require special assistance - infants, elderly people, and people with disabilities. Elderly people and people with disabilities may require additional assistance. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations.(幫助需要特別協助的鄰居,像是嬰兒、老人及行動不便的人。老人及行動不便的人需要特別的協助。照護這些人們的人或有大家庭的人可能在緊急的情況下需要額外的協助。)
●Look for and report broken utility lines and damaged roadways and railways to appropriate authorities. Reporting potential hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further hazard and injury.(尋找並向適當的主管單位通報毀損的維生管線及受損的道路與鐵路。回報潛在的危害可以儘速讓維生管線關閉,防止更大的災害及傷害。)
●Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help you assess the safety of the area.(檢查建築物的地基、煙囪及附近土地的損害。對建築物的地基、煙囪及附近土地的損害可以幫助你評估該區域的安全。)
●Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future.(儘快重新在受損的土地上種植植被,因為地面植被受損造成侵蝕可能導致在不久的未來發生暴洪及額外的山崩。)
●Seek advice from a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.(尋求地質科學專家評估山崩危害的建議,或設計正確的技術以減少山崩風險。專業人員可以建議你最佳方式以防止或減少山崩的風險,且不會製造更大的災害。)

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發表於 2010-9-11 18:32:40 | 顯示全部樓層
那些都是從消防月刊裡面找出來的文章打上去的@@因為我今年剛從消防署資訊室退伍~常常做這個工作所以知道,消防月刊內容不錯~有新設備跟新政策之類,可是一般地方好像都沒看過耶~真是可惜
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發表於 2014-3-19 21:14:38 | 顯示全部樓層
讀得懂文章 英文應該踏上一大步了吧
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發表於 2015-11-12 21:59:00 | 顯示全部樓層
很受用阿

可以增加閱讀能力
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發表於 2019-3-27 19:14:04 | 顯示全部樓層
很棒的文章,謝謝大大分享
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發表於 2019-4-4 23:18:02 | 顯示全部樓層
謝謝大大分享~~~
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